Inclisiran was first developed by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, US). Development has now been assumed by The Medicines Company (Parsippany, New Jersey, US). One phase I and two phase II trials have been completed. Topline results of two phase III trials were also recently presented while other phase III trials are still ongoing as part of the ORION clinical development program. …..https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555477/
Inclisiran is a long-acting, synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which is a serine protease that regulates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. By binding to PCSK9 messenger RNA, inclisiran prevents protein translation of PCSK9, leading to decreased concentrations of PCSK9 and plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol.1,2 Lowering circulating plasma LDL-C levels offers an additional benefit of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improving cardiovascular outcomes, as hypercholesterolemia is a major known risk factor for CVD.1,2
On December 11, 2020, the European Commission (EC) granted authorization for marketing inclisiran as the first and only approved siRNA for the treatment of adults with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and non-familial) or mixed dyslipidemia, alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies. It is marketed under the trade name Leqvio 8 and is also currently under review by the FDA.
Inclisiran, sold under the brand name Leqvio, is a medication for the treatment of people with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), ASCVD risk equivalents and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). It is a small interfering RNA that inhibits translation of the protein PCSK9. It is being developed by The Medicines Company which licensed the rights to inclisiran from Alnylam Pharmaceuticals.
On 15 October 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Leqvio, intended for the treatment for primary hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia. Inclisiran was approved for use in the European Union in December 2020.
In 2019 The Medicines Company announced positive results from pivotal phase III study (all primary and secondary endpoints were met with efficacy consistent with Phase I and II studies). The company anticipates regulatory submissions in the U.S. in the fourth quarter of 2019, and in Europe in the first quarter of 2020. The Medicines Company is being acquired by Novartis.
- “Leqvio EPAR”. European Medicines Agency. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- Fitzgerald K, White S, Borodovsky A, Bettencourt BR, Strahs A, Clausen V, et al. (January 2017). “A Highly Durable RNAi Therapeutic Inhibitor of PCSK9”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (1): 41–51. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1609243. PMC 5778873. PMID 27959715.
- Spreitzer H (11 September 2017). “Neue Wirkstoffe: Inclisiran”. Österreichische Apotheker-Zeitung (in German) (19/2017).
- “Proposed INN: List 114” (PDF). WHO Drug Information. WHO. 29 (4): 531f. 2015.
- Taylor NP (26 August 2019). “Medicines Company’s PCSK9 drug hits phase 3 efficacy goals”. FierceBiotech.
- “Leqvio: Pending EC decision”. European Medicines Agency (EMA). 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020. Text was copied from this source which is © European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
- “The Medicines Company Announces Positive Topline Results from First Pivotal Phase 3 Trial of Inclisiran”. The Medicines Company. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- “Novartis acquires medicines company”. Novartis. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Ray KK, Landmesser U, Leiter LA, et al. (April 2017). “Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol” (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 376 (15): 1430–1440. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1615758. hdl:10044/1/45416. PMID 28306389. S2CID 205101529.
- Ray KK, Wright RS, Kallend D, et al. (March 2020). “Two Phase 3 Trials of Inclisiran in Patients with Elevated LDL Cholesterol”. N. Engl. J. Med. 382 (16): 1507–1519. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1912387. PMID 32187462.
- “Inclisiran”. Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- Clinical trial number NCT03399370 for “Inclisiran for Participants With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (ORION-10)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
- Clinical trial number NCT03400800 for “Inclisiran for Subjects With ACSVD or ACSVD-Risk Equivalents and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (ORION-11)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
|Other names||ALN-PCSsc, ALN-60212|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||16248.27 g·mol−1|
- Kosmas CE, Munoz Estrella A, Sourlas A, Silverio D, Hilario E, Montan PD, Guzman E: Inclisiran: A New Promising Agent in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia. Diseases. 2018 Jul 13;6(3). pii: diseases6030063. doi: 10.3390/diseases6030063. [PubMed:30011788]
- German CA, Shapiro MD: Small Interfering RNA Therapeutic Inclisiran: A New Approach to Targeting PCSK9. BioDrugs. 2020 Feb;34(1):1-9. doi: 10.1007/s40259-019-00399-6. [PubMed:31782112]
- Doggrell SA: Inclisiran, the billion-dollar drug, to lower LDL cholesterol – is it worth it? Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020 Nov;21(16):1971-1974. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2020.1799978. Epub 2020 Aug 4. [PubMed:32749892]
- Goldstein JL, Brown MS: Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1987 Sep;76(3):504-7. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.76.3.504. [PubMed:3621516]
- Pratt AJ, MacRae IJ: The RNA-induced silencing complex: a versatile gene-silencing machine. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 3;284(27):17897-901. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R900012200. Epub 2009 Apr 1. [PubMed:19342379]
- Leiter LA, Teoh H, Kallend D, Wright RS, Landmesser U, Wijngaard PLJ, Kastelein JJP, Ray KK: Inclisiran Lowers LDL-C and PCSK9 Irrespective of Diabetes Status: The ORION-1 Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan;42(1):173-176. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1491. Epub 2018 Nov 28. [PubMed:30487231]
- Cupido AJ, Kastelein JJP: Inclisiran for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia: implications and unanswered questions from the ORION trials. Cardiovasc Res. 2020 Sep 1;116(11):e136-e139. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa212. [PubMed:32766688]
- Novartis: Novartis receives EU approval for Leqvio (inclisiran), a first-in-class siRNA to lower cholesterol with two doses a year [Link]
- Summary of Product Characteristics: Leqvio (inclisiran), solution for subcutaneous injection [Link]
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains one of the leading causes of death in Canada. Cholesterol, specifically low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is thereby targeted to reduce the likelihood of a cardiovascular event, such as a myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.
Inclisiran, first developed by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, US) then by The Medicines Company (Parsippany, New Jersey, US), is a small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecule being investigated for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
ORION-1 was a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre, randomized controlled trial of 501 patients. Patients were included in the trial if they had a history of ASCVD or were at high risk of ASCVD. The treatment arms were administered 200 mg, 300 mg, or 500 mg of inclisiran on day 1, or 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg of inclisiran on days 1 and 90. The comparator was either placebo on day 1 or placebo on days 1 and 90. The primary end point was percentage change in LDL-C at day 180 from baseline.
The ORION-1 study demonstrated that inclisiran, administered at various doses and intervals, compared with placebo, resulted in a statistically significant reduction in LDL-C levels (P < 0.001 for all comparisons versus placebo). The greatest reduction in LDL-C levels was obtained with the 300 mg dose of inclisiran given at days 1 and 90 with a 52.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −57.1 to −48.1) reduction at day 180 compared with baseline, and a mean absolute reduction in LDL-C levels of 1.66 (standard deviation 0.54) mmol/L. Results from the ORION-1 trial provided the necessary data to make a decision regarding the dosing regimen to be used in subsequent phase III trials, in particular the ORION-11 phase III trial.
The ORION-11 study was a phase III international, multi-centre, and double-blind trial which randomized 1,617 participants (87% with established ASCVD) to inclisiran 300 mg (n = 810) or placebo (n = 807). An initial inclisiran dose of 300 mg given subcutaneously was administered at day 1, day 90, and then every six months for two doses, that is at days 270 and 450. The mean baseline LDL-C level was 2.8 mmol/L (inclisiran) and 2.7 mmol/L (placebo); 96% of participants were on high-dose statin therapy. There was a 50% time-averaged reduction in LDL-C levels from day 90 to day 540 (P < 0.00001). Pre-specified exploratory cardiovascular composite end point (cardiac death, cardiac arrest, MI, or stroke) occurred in 7.8% of inclisiran treated patients versus 10.3% of patients on placebo; this lower rate was mainly driven by a reduction in MI and stroke. With respect to adverse effects, 4.69% of patients on inclisiran reported an injection site reaction, compared with 0.5% of patients on placebo. All reactions were transient. There was no evidence of liver, kidney, muscle, or platelet toxicity.
Inclisiran may be an option in the future as a cholesterol-lowering medication, where it would likely be used in patients who are unable to achieve their LDL-C targets despite maximally tolerated statin therapy or who are intolerant to statin therapy. However, results from the inclisiran cardiovascular outcome trial (ORION-4), are needed to confirm its efficacy in reducing CVD and its long-term safety.
Inclisiran is not yet approved by any regulatory authority, but its ORION clinical development program identifies the year 2021 as the goal to reach worldwide markets.
///////////Inclisiran, LEQVIO, ALN 60212, ALN PCSsc , NOVARTIS