- Molecular FormulaC26H37N5O2
- Average mass451.604 Da
- FCE 21336
Cabergoline, sold under the brand name Dostinex among others, is a dopaminergic medication used in the treatment of high prolactin levels, prolactinomas, Parkinson’s disease, and for other indications. It is taken by mouth.
Cabergoline is a dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic conditions due to various causes.
Cabergoline, an ergot derivative, is a long-acting dopamine agonist and prolactin inhibitor. It is used to treat hyperprolactinemic disorders and Parkinsonian Syndrome. Cabergoline possesses potent agonist activity on dopamine D2 receptors.
6-Allyl-N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N-[(ethylamino)carbonyl]-ergoline-8β-carboxamide – international non-proprietary name cabergoline – of formula (I)
is a potent dopamine agonist and is useful as anti-Parkinson drug and as prolactin inhibitor (Eur. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 24, 421-426 and United States Patent 5,382,669 ).
Cabergoline (I) was firstly prepared according to United States Patent 4,526,892 by reaction of 6-allyl-ergoline-8β-carboxylic acid (II) with 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) (Scheme 1).
In this case both regioisomers (I) and (III) were obtained and the yield of the isolated cabergoline (I) is only approx. 21% as a consequence of isolation difficulties, considering that the yield of compound (II) prepared from (XIII) according to the state of the art is 70%.
Since this reaction leads to equilibrium, it requires the use of a large excess of ethyl isocyanate (up to 40 equivalents) for reasonable conversion and must be conducted at above 100°C in toluene for several hours. The use of large quantities of toxic ethyl isocyanate under drastic reaction conditions presents a serious hazard for the large-scale preparation of cabergoline (I). In addition, conversion to (I) is incomplete and competitive acylation of the indole nitrogen forming compounds (V) and (VI) occurs. This side reaction complicates the product purification and reduces the yield, which is only approx. 58%, considering that the yield of compound (IV) prepared from (XIII) according to the state of the art is 72%.
The method proposed in United States Patent 5,382,669 and Syn. Lett. 1995, 605-606 showed that catalysis by copper salts in the presence of phosphine ligands permitted the ethyl isocyanate reaction to be run at room temperature with only 3 equivalents of ethyl isocyanate. However, despite of moderation in reaction conditions the conversion and the ratio of cabergoline (I) and the byproducts (V and VI) are not much different from the uncatalyzed thermal reaction. The yield is only approx. 48% and 57%, considering that the yield of compound (IV) prepared from (XIII) according to the state of the art is 72%.
J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 7147-7150 describes an ethyl isocyanate-free method for the production of cabergoline (I) that solves the problem of completing acylation of indole nitrogen, too.
The first step is the protection of indole nitrogen of amide (IV) preferably as tert-butyl carbamate (VII).
Extension of the amide side chain is done by deprotonation of compound (VII) with sodium hexamethyldisilazide (NaHMDS) followed by trapping the anion with phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl) to yield the phenyl carbamate (VTII).
Reaction of compound (VII) with ethylamine hydrochloride (EtNH2xHCl) gives BOC-cabergoline (IX) but also generates the ethylamide (X). The deprotection is done from the mixture of (IX) and (X) with 1N aqueous hydrochloric acid. The purified cabergoline (I) is then isolated by basification followed by chromatography on silica. (Scheme 3).
In this approach the deprotonating step requires special cold reactor and strictly anhydrous circumstances. These requirements can hardly be satisfied in the course of large-scale preparation and the yield is only approx. 52%, considering that the yield of compound (VII) prepared from (XIII) according to the state of the art is 66%.
According to US 2002/0177709 A1 Patent Application cabergoline (I) may be prepared by silylating amide (IV) with a silylating agent (e.g. trimethylsilyl trifluoromethane sulfonate – TMSOTf), reacting the obtained product (XI) with ethyl isocyanate (EtNCO) followed by desilylation of intermediate (XII) (Scheme 4).
The disadvantage of this process is, that the silylating step requires strictly anhydrous circumstances. Otherwise, the reaction with ethyl isocyanate runs too long (24 hours) raising the safety hazard in the course of large-scale preparation and the yield is approx. 65%, considering that the yield of compound (IV) prepared from (XIII) according to the state of the art is 72%.
Several crystalline forms of Cabergoline (I) are known.
IL Farmaco 1995, 50 (3), 175-178 describes the preparation of crystalline form I. This solvated anhydrate product is crystallized from diethyl ether.
WO 01/70740 A1 Patent Application describes a new process for the preparation of crystalline form I from the new crystalline form V. The form V – which is toluene solvate – is prepared from the mixture of the purified cabergoline (I) with toluene and diethyl ether by a long-lasting complicated process, at low reaction temperature, and the yield is only 45%. The crystalline form I is prepared by drying the form V in vacuum.
WO 01/72746-A1 Patent Application describes the preparation of crystalline form VII from the crystalline form L By this process the suspension of form I in n-heptane or 1,4-dioxane is stirred for 48 hours, and then the suspension was filtered to obtain the crystalline form VII. The yield is 45.2%.
WO 01/72747 A1 Patent Application describes the crystalline form II and a process for its preparation with approx. 70% yield by stirring the cabergoline (I) for several days in an organic solvent (eg. diethyl ether) at low temperature.
Xenobiotica 1993, 23(12), 1377-1389, describes a comparison of the disposition and urinary metabolic pattern of 14C-cabergoline after single oral administration to rat, monkey and man. Among the potential metabolites of cabergoline a compound identified as FCE 27392 is disclosed, which corresponds to intermediate XIX of the preparation process of cabergoline according to the present invention.
The reaction procedure is shown in Scheme 5.
EXAMPLE 5Synthesis of 6-allyl-N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N-[(ethylamino)carbonyl]-ergoline-8β-carboxamide (I) (Cabergoline).
To a suspension of 9.0 g (21.87 mmol) N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N-[(ethylamino)carbonyl)-ergoline-8β-carboxamide (XIX) in 250 ml of toluene 0.5 g of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) and 5 ml of allyl acetate was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. The resulting mixture was washed with 100 ml of water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. The dried solution was concentrated in vacuum and the product was purified on a silica plug to give 9.1 g (92.3%) of the title compound.
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, TMS, 500MHz) δ 1.10 (t, 3H, J=7.2Hz, CONHCH2CH 3); 1.47 (q, 1H, J=12.4Hz, Hβ-9); 1.62-1.72 (m, 2H, CONCH2CH 2CH2N(CH3)2); 2.15 (s, 6H, CONCH2CH2CH2N(CH 3)2); 2.20-2.30 (m, 2H, CONHCH2CH2CH 2N(CH3)2); 2.32-2.40 (m, 2H, H-5, Hβ-7); 2.54 (dd, 1H, J=14.3Hz, 11.2Hz, Hα-4); 2.68-2.84 (m, 2H, Hα-9, H-10); 3.08 (ddd, 1H, J=11.3Hz, 3.1Hz, 1.8Hz, Hα-7); 3.14-3.22 (m, 2H, CONHCH 2CH3); 3.26 (dd, 1H, J=14.7Hz, 7.3Hz, Hx-N(6)CH 2CH=CH2); 3.28-3.38 (m, 2H, Hβ-4, H-8); 3.48 (dd, 1H, J=14.7Hz, 5.8Hz, Hy-N(6)CH 2CH=CH2); 3.58-3.68 (m, 2H, CONCH 2CH2CH2N(CH3)2); 5.15 (d, 1H, J=10.3Hz, Hx-N(6)CH2CH=CH 2); 5.24 (d, 1H, J=17.2Hz, Hy-N(6)CH2CH=CH 2); 5.88-5.98 (m, 1H, N(6)CH2CH=CH2); 6.75 (d, 1H, J=7.0Hz, H-12); 6.97 (s, 1H, H-2); 7.01 (t, 1H, J=7.5Hz, H-13); 7.13 (d, 1H, J=8.0Hz, H-14); 9.04 (t, 1H, J=5.0Hz, CONHCH2CH3); 10.60 (s, 1H, N(1)H).
EXAMPLE 6Production of amorphous form of Cabergoline (I)
- a) 10 g of chromatographically purified oily Cabergoline (I) was dissolved in 50 ml of acetone. The solution was concentrated in vacuum at 25-30°C to approx. 15 g. The obtained oily residue was dissolved in 40 ml of acetone, and the solution was concentrated in vacuum at 25-30°C to approx. 12 g. The obtained oily residue was dissolved in 30 ml of acetone again, and the solution was concentrated in vacuum at 25-30°C to 10 g. The obtained solid Cabergoline (I) was dried in vacuum at 25-30°C to solvent-free, to give 9.8 g (98%) of the title compound.
- b) The same as in Example 6a, but employing methyl acetate as solvent, 9.85 g (98.5%) of the title compound was obtained.
- c) The same as in Example 6a, but employing dichloromethane as solvent, 9.82 g (982%) of the title compound was obtained.
|J Label Compd Radiopharm 1991,29(5),519|
The synthesis of tritiated cabergoline by two similar routes has been described: 1) The acylation of 6-nor-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (I) with propargyl bromide yields the corresponding 6-propargyl derivative (II), which is hydrogenated with tritium gas over Pd/C in the presence of quinoline to give the ditritiated 6-allyl derivative (III). This compound is treated with 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine at 120 C, yielding the amide (IV), which is finally treated with ethyl isocyanate. 2) The reaction of the propargyl derivative (II) with 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine as before gives the amide (V). The reaction of (V) with ethyl isocyanate gives compound (VI), which is then hydrogenated with tritium as before.
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- Lactation suppression
- Adjunctive therapy of prolactin-producing pituitary gland tumors (prolactinomas);
- Monotherapy of Parkinson’s disease in the early phase;
- Combination therapy, together with levodopa and a decarboxylase inhibitor such as carbidopa, in progressive-phase Parkinson’s disease;
- In some countries also: ablactation and dysfunctions associated with hyperprolactinemia (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, anovulation, nonpuerperal mastitis and galactorrhea);
- Treatment of uterine fibroids.
- Adjunctive therapy of acromegaly, cabergoline has low efficacy in suppressing growth hormone levels and is highly efficient in suppressing hyperprolactinemia that is present in 20-30% of acromegaly cases; growth hormone and prolactin are similar structurally and have similar effects in many target tissues, therefore targeting prolactin may help symptoms when growth hormone secretion can not be sufficiently controlled by other methods;
Cabergoline is frequently used as a first-line agent in the management of prolactinomas due to its higher affinity for D2 receptor sites, less severe side effects, and more convenient dosing schedule than the older bromocriptine, though in pregnancy bromocriptine is often still chosen since there is less data on safety in pregnancy for cabergoline.
It has at times been used as an adjunct to SSRI antidepressants as there is some evidence that it counteracts certain side effects of those drugs, such as reduced libido and anorgasmia. It also has been suggested that it has a possible recreational use in reducing or eliminating the male refractory period, thereby allowing men to experience multiple ejaculatory orgasms in rapid succession, and at least two scientific studies support those speculations.: e28–e33 Additionally, a systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that prophylactic treatment with cabergoline reduces the incidence, but not the severity, of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), without compromising pregnancy outcomes, in females undergoing stimulated cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Also, a study on rats found that cabergoline reduces voluntary alcohol consumption, possibly by increasing GDNF expression in the ventral tegmental area. It may be used in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
Pregnancy and lactation
Relatively little is known about the effects of this medication during pregnancy and lactation. In some cases the related bromocriptine may be an alternative when pregnancy is expected.
- Pregnancy: available preliminary data indicates a somewhat increased rate of congenital abnormalities in patients who became pregnant while treated with cabergoline.. However, one study concluded that “foetal exposure to cabergoline through early pregnancy does not induce any increase in the risk of miscarriage or foetal malformation.”
- Lactation: In rats cabergoline was found in the maternal milk. Since it is not known if this effect also occurs in humans, breastfeeding is usually not recommended if/when treatment with cabergoline is necessary.
- Lactation suppression: In some countries cabergoline (Dostinex) is sometimes used as a lactation suppressant. It is also used in veterinary medicine to treat false pregnancy in dogs.
- Hypersensitivity to ergot derivatives
- Pediatric patients (no clinical experience)
- Severely impaired liver function or cholestasis
- Concomitant use with drugs metabolized mainly by CYP450 enzymes such as erythromycin and ketoconazole, because increased plasma levels of cabergoline may result (although cabergoline undergoes minimal CYP450 metabolism).
- Cautions: severe cardiovascular disease, Raynaud’s disease, gastroduodenal ulcers, active gastrointestinal bleeding, hypotension.
Side effects are mostly dose dependent. Much more severe side effects are reported for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and (off-label treatment) for restless leg syndrome which both typically require very high doses. The side effects are considered mild when used for treatment of hyperprolactinemia and other endocrine disorders or gynecologic indications where the typical dose is one hundredth to one tenth that for Parkinson’s disease.
Cabergoline requires slow dose titration (2–4 weeks for hyperprolactinemia, often much longer for other conditions) to minimise side effects. The extremely long bioavailability of the medication may complicate dosing regimens during titration and require particular precautions.
Cabergoline is considered the best tolerable option for hyperprolactinemia treatment although the newer and less tested quinagolide may offer similarly favourable side effect profile with quicker titration times.
Approximately 200 patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease participated in a clinical study of cabergoline monotherapy. Seventy-six (76) percent reported at least one side effect. These side effects were chiefly mild or moderate:
- GI tract: Side effects were extremely frequent. Fifty-three percent of patients reported side effects. Very frequent: Nausea (30%), constipation (22%), and dry mouth (10%). Frequent: Gastric irritation (7%), vomiting (5%), and dyspepsia (2%).
- Psychiatric disturbances and central nervous system (CNS): Altogether 51 percent of patients were affected. Very frequent: Sleep disturbances (somnolence 18%, insomnia 11%), vertigo (27%), and depression (13%). Frequent: dyskinesia (4%) and hallucinations (4%).
- Cardiovascular: Approximately 30 percent of patients experienced side effects. Most frequent were hypotension (10%), peripheral edema (14%) and non-specific edema (2%). Arrhythmias were encountered in 4.8%, palpitations in 4.3%, and angina pectoris in 1.4%.
In a combination study with 2,000 patients also treated with levodopa, the incidence and severity of side effects was comparable to monotherapy. Encountered side effects required a termination of cabergoline treatment in 15% of patients. Additional side effects were infrequent cases of hematological side effects, and an occasional increase in liver enzymes or serum creatinine without signs or symptoms.
As with other ergot derivatives, pleuritis, exudative pleura disease, pleura fibrosis, lung fibrosis, and pericarditis are seen. These side effects are noted in less than 2% of patients. They require immediate termination of treatment. Clinical improvement and normalization of X-ray findings are normally seen soon after cabergoline withdrawal. It appears that the dose typically used for treatment of hyperprolactinemia is too low to cause this type of side effects.
Valvular heart disease
In two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine on January 4, 2007, cabergoline was implicated along with pergolide in causing valvular heart disease. As a result of this, the FDA removed pergolide from the U.S. market on March 29, 2007. Since cabergoline is not approved in the U.S. for Parkinson’s Disease, but for hyperprolactinemia, the drug remains on the market. The lower doses required for treatment of hyperprolactinemia have been found to be not associated with clinically significant valvular heart disease or cardiac valve regurgitation.
No interactions were noted with levodopa or selegiline. The drug should not be combined with other ergot derivatives. Dopamine antagonists such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide counteract some effects of cabergoline. The use of antihypertensive drugs should be intensively monitored because excessive hypotension may result from the combination.
|Notes: All sites are human except α2D-adrenergic, which is rat (no human counterpart). Negligible affinity (>10,000 nM) for various other receptors (β1– and β2-adrenergic, adenosine, GABA, glutamate, glycine, nicotinic acetylcholine, opioid, prostanoid). Sources: |
Cabergoline is a long-acting dopamine D2 receptor agonist. In-vitro rat studies show a direct inhibitory effect of cabergoline on the prolactin secretion in the lactotroph cells of the pituitary gland and cabergoline decreases serum prolactin levels in reserpinized rats. Although cabergoline is commonly described principally as a D2 receptor agonist, it also possesses significant affinity for the dopamine D3, and D4, serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C, and α2-adrenergic receptors, as well as moderate/low affinity for the dopamine D1, serotonin 5-HT7, and α1-adrenergic receptors. Cabergoline functions as an partial or full agonist at all of these receptors except for the 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, and α2-adrenergic receptors, where it acts as an antagonist. Cabergoline has been associated with cardiac valvulopathy due to activation of 5-HT2B receptors.
Following a single oral dose, resorption of cabergoline from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is highly variable, typically occurring within 0.5 to 4 hours. Ingestion with food does not alter its absorption rate. Human bioavailability has not been determined since the drug is intended for oral use only. In mice and rats the absolute bioavailability has been determined to be 30 and 63 percent, respectively. Cabergoline is rapidly and extensively metabolized in the liver and excreted in bile and to a lesser extent in urine. All metabolites are less active than the parental drug or inactive altogether. The human elimination half-life is estimated to be 63 to 68 hours in patients with Parkinson’s disease and 79 to 115 hours in patients with pituitary tumors. Average elimination half-life is 80 hours.
The therapeutic effect in treatment of hyperprolactinemia will typically persist for at least 4 weeks after cessation of treatment.
Cabergoline was first synthesized by scientists working for the Italian drug company Farmitalia-Carlo Erba in Milan who were experimenting with semisynthetic derivatives of the ergot alkaloids, and a patent application was filed in 1980. The first publication was a scientific abstract at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in 1991.
Society and culture
Brand names of cabergoline include Cabaser, Dostinex, Galastop (veterinary), and Kelactin (veterinary), among others.
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|Trade names||Dostinex, others|
|Bioavailability||First-pass effect seen; absolute bioavailability unknown|
|Protein binding||Moderately bound (40–42%); concentration-independent|
|Metabolism||Hepatic, predominately via hydrolysis of the acylurea bond or the urea moiety|
|Elimination half-life||63–69 hours (estimated)|
|Excretion||Urine (22%), feces (60%)|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||451.615 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
////////////////Cabergoline, UNII-LL60K9J05T, каберголин , كابارغولين ,卡麦角林 , FCE-21336